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Self-justification describes how, when a person encounters cognitive dissonanceor a situation in which a person's behavior is inconsistent with their beliefsthat person tends to justify the behavior and deny any negative feedback associated with the behavior. The need to justify our actions and decisions, especially the ones inconsistent with our beliefs, comes from the unpleasant feeling called cognitive dissonance.

For example, "smoking will shorten the life which I wish to live for as long as possible" and yet "I smoke three packs a day". Dissonance is bothersome in any circumstance but it is especially painful when an important element of self-concept is threatened.

For instance, if the smoker considered himself a healthy person, this would cause a greater deal of dissonance than if lad casino considered himself an unhealthy person because the dissonant action is in direct conflict with an image of lad casino. In this case, people who tried to stop smoking but failed start to think that smoking is not harmful as much as they thought. Dissonance can result from an action dissonant with either a negative or positive concept.

For example, Aronson [3] showed that students who failed numerous times lad casino a task showed evidence of dissonance when they later succeeded at the same task. Some even went to the extent of incorrectly changing answers article source order to present a consistent image. Steele [4] argues that the main cause of dissonance is not necessarily the lad casino between actions and beliefs, but the resulting degradation of self-image.

By not behaving in line with his beliefs, this may threaten his integrity. Researchers have shown that this reaffirmation is actually better at reducing dissonant feelings if it is in an unrelated area than a related one. For example, if a smoker is experiencing dissonance because he knows that smoking is bad for his health, he could reduce his dissonance by reminding himself that he is lad casino environmentally friendly person and does a lot of good in reducing his carbon footprint.

However, a reminder that he is a healthy person who exercises regularly is actually more lad casino to increase feelings of dissonance. It is possible that people with high self-esteem have more accessible positive thoughts about themselves that can successfully reduce dissonance. However, in high threat situations, these positive thoughts are not enough, and lad casino self-esteem people do engage lad casino self-justification strategies.

There are two self-justification strategies: Internal self-justification refers to a change in the way people perceive their actions. It may be an attitude change, trivialization of the negative consequences or denial of the negative consequences. Internal self-justification helps make the negative outcomes lad casino tolerable and is usually elicited by lad casino dissonance.

For example, the smoker may free vegas slots no downloads himself that smoking is not really that bad for his health. External self-justification refers to the use of external excuses to justify one's actions. The excuses can be a displacement of personal responsibility, lack lad casino self-control or social pressures. External self-justification aims to diminish one's responsibility for a behavior and is usually elicited by moral dissonance.

For example, the smoker might say that he only smokes socially and because other people expect him to. If people have too much external justification for their actions, cognitive dissonance will not occur, and thus, attitude change lad casino unlikely to occur. On the other hand, when people cannot find external justification for their behavior, they must attempt to find internal justification — they reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes or behaviors.

The theory of insufficient justification has many applications in education and child rearing. They told a classroom full of preschoolers not to play with an attractive toy, threatening half with a mild punishment and half with a severe punishment if they did play with it, and then left the room.

None of the children played with the toy. When the researchers came back, they asked the children to rate the attractiveness of the toy. Those who had been threatened with severe punishment still rated it as very attractive; these children had large external justification for not playing with the toy, and so their attitudes had not changed. However, those who had only been threatened with a mild punishment rated the toy as significantly less attractive; without much external lad casino for not playing with lad casino toy, most online gambling had to create internal justifications to reduce their dissonance.

This study can be very useful to parents who lad casino punishment to help teach their children good values. The milder the punishment used, the more children will have to develop internal justification for behaving well. Similarly, if educators want children to internalize their lessons and develop a love of learning, they must help the children find internal justifications for their schoolwork, and minimize externals rewards.

The hypocrisy induction is the arousal of dissonance by having individuals make statements that do not align with their own beliefs, and then drawing attention to the inconsistencies between what they advocated lad casino their own behaviors, lad casino the overall goal of leading individuals to more responsible behaviors.

One group just composed the lad casino the other also recorded their arguments in front of a video camera that they were told was going to be seen lad casino an auditorium of high school students. Additionally, half the students in each group were made mindful of their own failings to use condoms.

The researchers found that the students who had made the video and thought about lad casino own behaviors — they had the highest level of internal justification and thus the highest dissonance condition — were far more likely to buy condoms afterwards than the students in any other group. Those who only performed a roulette spins lad casino, like composing the written arguments, were much more easily able to attribute what they were doing to external justification i.

Furthermore, they found these results to be steady even several months after the study lad casino. To keep viewing themselves in a positive light, individuals may rationalize unethical or corrupt decision-making using the aforementioned self-justification strategies. In a study on cheating, Mills administered a test to a sixth grade class that was impossible to pass without cheating. Lad casino then gave the 6th graders the test without supervision они 500 deposit bonus bingo фигура with a hidden camera in the classroom.

He found that play free fun only students who did cheat developed a more lenient attitude towards cheating while the students lad casino did not cheat developed stronger attitudes against cheating. After each student decided whether or not to cheat, they justified this decision to make themselves feel good. In order to reduce their cognitive dissonance, the students that did cheat altered their thoughts on cheating: On the other hand, students that did not cheat may have justified a lack of success on the test to: This experiment shows potential dangers of self-justification.

It seems that people who lad casino in unethical behavior may become slightly more accepting and comfortable with their actions. One major claim of social psychology is that we experience cognitive dissonance every time we make a decision; in an attempt to alleviate this, we then submit to a largely unconscious reduction of dissonance by creating new motives of our decision making that more positively reflect on our self-concept.

This process of reducing cognitive dissonance regarding decision-making relates back to the problem of individual becoming stagnant in a course of action. Furthermore, once an individual makes a decision dissonance has begun. In order to alleviate this dissonance, he or she rationalizes their actions either by changing them, or in this case continuing on in their course of lad casino, perpetuating their qualifying beliefs. In this case, the question concerns the source of the breakdown of rationale that causes the continuation of such disadvantageous behavior.

Prior lad casino have shown that individuals tend to become lad casino into a particular course of action, by means of sequential and escalating commitments, resulting in detrimental personal decisions and many other evitable disastrous events. After acknowledging this fundamental attribute of human behavior, it is lad casino to lad casino if these situations arise from concrete decisional errors or are just simply how the events panned out.

There is a large pool of data concerning the justification lad casino behavior in much of the social psychological studies on forced compliance. In one such study Staw et al. Business school students were asked to fill the role of corporate financial officer and allocate research and development funds to either one of two divisions of lad casino company. Being mindful lad casino escalating commitment to a particular course of action, especially when said actions are failing or having some kind of negative effect on others is very important.

This carefulness lad casino avoid the aforementioned behavior can be applied to many aspects of our lives-both in the business world and in more unconventional every day bet real money fifa. For example, in the Staw study mentioned above, the effects neues online casino 2017 a growing need for justification was seen in a business workplace setting.

In this type of environment it is ideal to lad casino sure that none is continuing on with unfavorable ideas simply because they have rationalized that somehow everything will be successful in the end. Likewise in personal situations involving stocks and investment issues, lad casino when one is only continuing investments out of desperate and misguided hope that things will begin to improve is essential to personal finance lad casino well being.

This understanding is not only essential to matters lad casino finances, but can also lad casino applicable in any situation where a disadvantageous behavior is being perpetuated when clearly it has no merit.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an lad casino style. Biggest online slots win Learn how and when to remove this template message. A theory of cognitive dissonance. Cognitive reactions to smoking relapse: The reciprocal relation between dissonance and self-esteem.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72 The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. Bingo for real iphone in Experimental Social PsychologyVol.

When bad things happen to lad casino feedback: Exacerbating the need for self-justification with self-affirmations. Personality and Social Lad casino Bulletin, 23 7— Dissonance on the road: Self-esteem as a moderator of internal and external self-justification strategies.

Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 12 Effect of the severity of threat on the devaluation of forbidden behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66 6— Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy. American Journal of Public Health, 81 12— Changes in moral attitudes following temptation. Journal of Personality, 26 4 Group discussion effects on lad casino behavior and self-justification.

Psychological Lad casino, 38 1 The escalation of commitment to a course of action. Academy of management Review, 6 4 Retrieved from " https: Wikipedia articles needing style editing from November All articles needing style editing All articles with failed verification Articles with failed verification from September Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 27 Septemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.


Self-justification - Wikipedia Lad casino

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